image of Leptospirosis Outbreak After the 2014 Major Flooding Event in Kelantan, Malaysia: A Spatial-Temporal Analysis
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Severe floods increase the risk of leptospirosis outbreaks in endemic areas. This study determines the spatial-temporal distribution of leptospirosis in relation to environmental factors after a major flooding event in Kelantan, Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving incident leptospirosis cases, from the 3 months before, during, and three months after flood, in reference to the severe 2014 Kelantan flooding event. Geographical information system was used to determine the spatial distribution while climatic factors that influenced the cases were also analyzed. A total of 1,229 leptospirosis cases were notified within the three study periods where incidence doubled in the postflood period. Twelve of 78 subdistricts recorded incidence rates of over 100 per 100,000 population in the postflood periods, in comparison with only four subdistricts in the preflooding period. Average nearest neighborhood indicated that the cases were more clustered in the postflood period as compared with the preflood period, with observed mean distance of 1,138.8 meters and 1,665.7 meters, respectively (both at < 0.01). Global Moran’s I was higher in the postflooding period (0.19; < 0.01) as compared with the preflood period (0.06; < 0.01). Geographic weighted regression showed that living close to water bodies increased the risk of contracting the disease. Postflooding hotspots were concentrated in areas where garbage cleanup occurred and the incidence was significantly associated with temperature, humidity, rainfall, and river levels. Leptospirosis outbreak postflooding was associated with several factors. Understanding the spatial distribution and associated factors of leptospirosis can help improve future disease outbreak management after the floods.


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  • Published online : 12 Mar 2018
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