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- The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
First Insight into the Fluoroquinolone and Aminoglycoside Resistance of Multidrug‐Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia
In Saudi Arabia, there were no nationwide screening studies conducted so far to determine the aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone resistance among multidrug‐resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR‐TB) isolates. Therefore, as the first attempt in the country, a retrospective analysis has been conducted on a nationwide collection of 2,956 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates screened with phenotypic drug susceptibility testing to define MDR-TB. Enrolled MDR‐TB isolates were subjected to second‐line drug susceptibility testing, detection of mutations conferring resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolone, followed by 24‐loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number of tandem repeat typing and spoligotyping. Overall, 83 isolates were identified as MDR‐TB, and 13 (15.7%) isolates showed resistance to second‐line drugs. Moxifloxacin (low level) showed higher resistant rates (10.8%) followed by ofloxacin (7.2%), capreomycin (3.6%), kanamycin (3.6%), and amikacin (2.4%). Overall fluoroquinolone resistance was 12%, whereas aminoglycoside resistance was 7.2%. Predominant mutations conferring resistance to fluoroquinolone were found in gyrA A90V and D94G, whereas aminoglycoside resistance was observed only with rrs gene A1401G mutation. The corresponding strain lineages predominated with Indo‐Oceanic and East‐African Indian origin. Interestingly, none of the isolates with second‐line drug resistance was defined as extensively drug‐resistant TB (XDR‐TB). Surprisingly, many isolates (50.6%) were panresistant to first‐line drugs. Saudi Arabia faces considerable burden of fluoroquinolone‐ and aminoglycoside‐resistant MDR‐TB. Higher incidence of panresistant MDR‐TB reveals a threat for the emergence of XDR‐TB strains in the near future.